Europe has undergone a demographic revolution it never expected. A half century of mass immigration has failed to produce anything resembling a melting pot. By overestimating its need for immigrant labor and underestimating the culture-shaping potential of religion, Europe has trapped itself in a problem to which it has no obvious solution. Journalist Christopher Caldwell reveals a paradox: since World War II, mass immigration has been made possible by Europe's enforcement of secularism, tolerance, and equality. But when immigrants arrive, they are not required to adopt those values--and they are disinclined to. Muslims dominate or nearly dominate important European cities. As increasingly assertive immigrant populations shape the continent, Caldwell writes, the foundations of European culture and civilization are being challenged--and replaced.--From publisher description.